FIG. 2. Visual appearance and confocal laser scanning microscopy
images (CLSM) of control (creamed) and UHPH (stable) reduced-fat
mayonnaises (52 wt% oil) after six months of chilled storage. In the
CLSM images, the oil droplets are red and the rest of ingredients
FIRst stEps FOR INDUstRIAlIZAtION
UHPH has progressively gained the attention of industry in keep-
ing with the development and scale-up of the systems. During
the last 10 years, pilot units (up to 300 L/h) capable of applying
the ultra-high pressures needed to structure reduced-fat emul-
sions (100–350 MPa) entered the market. Worldwide, several
have been installed and used for food research and development
and demonstration purposes. Most scalability problems have
been solved during these pilot efforts, and several companies are
beginning to design and commercialize industrial systems. BEE
International advertises two homogenizer models that perform
up to 140 and 310 MPa, and up to 2,700 and 1,500 L/h, respec-
tively. The European startup Ypsicon recently launched UHPH
equipment that performs up to 350 MPa of 1,000 L/h and is scal-
able up to 10,000 L/h. However, to the best of our knowledge in
April 2016, neither company had yet constructed industrial units.
The price of the smallest industrial-scale units ( 1,000– 3,000 L/h)
are around $400,000–700,000. The estimated cost of equipment
needed to handle higher flow demanding applications ( 10,000
L/h) would run between $1,000,000– 2,000,000, depending on
pressure requirements and annexes.
In conclusion, UHPH has strong potential for reduced-fat
emulsion structuring, opening the door for designing innovative
and healthy liquid foods. The first steps toward industrial implementation have been completed, but further work is required to
validate the results obtained at pilot and lab scale on a scale that
is close to industrial.
In any case, due to the great influence food and ingredient
properties have on process efficiency and the characteristics of
the final emulsions, industrial application of UHPH requires the
process to be optimized for each particular product.
Saioa Alvarez-Sabatel has a Ph.D. and MsC in Food Quality and
Safety. Her research is devoted to the impact of emerging food
processing technologies on food microstructure, with special
emphasis on the technological functionality of food emulsions and
ingredients. She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ziortza Cruz has a BSc in Food Science and Technology and an MSc
in Pharmacology. She has been involved in more than 50 R&D and
transfer projects for the food industry. Her research field is mainly
focused on emerging processing technologies for preservation and
the development of new food products. She can be contacted at
Iñigo Martínez de Marañón has a Ph.D. in Food Science and Technology. He is currently R&D&I Manager at AZTI. He has more than
25 years of experience in Food R&D, mainly related to the study of
the impact of emerging processing technologies on food quality.
He can be contacted at email@example.com.
Eduardo Puértolas has a Ph.D. in Food Science and Technology.
He is co-author of more than 40 publications (including 28 peer-reviewed papers) and has participated in more than 30 public and
private projects related to emerging food technologies. He can
be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org.
The authors are with AZTI, Food Research Division, Derio, Spain.